Improvements in both diagnostic techniques and surgical treatments of hydrocephalus have led to better long-term outcomes and increased prevalence of patients harboring this disease, however our knowledge of hydrocephalus is still very limited [1,2]. Case presentation: Eighteen-year-old patient was evaluated for her 2 pregnancies; the first was a male fetus with severe hydrocephalus and the second a female fetus with mild hydrocephalus. 2.- 7'i2-year-old girl with severe hydrocephalus and bilateral, asym­ metrical atrial diverticula. Radiology 1988; 169:711–714. Background: Various radiological markers have been proposed for diagnostics in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Outcome of prenatally diagnosed mild unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly. Hydrocephalus secondary to cystic polar spongio­ blastoma of hypothalamus and anterior third ventricle. 2 Department of Radiology, ... patient with severe hydrocephalus resulting from aqueductal stenosis. Hydrocephalus Charles Raybaud Introduction Hydrocephalus is one mechanical complication of many different diseases. Ellie was born with 2/3 of her brain missing and her head filled with fluid. 3. We examined the usefulness of radiological markers in the diagnostics and prediction of shunt response in iNPH. Background: Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is defined by ventriculomegaly, cognitive decline, urinary incontinence and gait problems. Symptoms of hydrocephalus. This is the true story of Ellie's brain growth miracle. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) occurs as the result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) (4 – 6). The damage to the brain from hydrocephalus can cause a wide range of symptoms, including: headache; Radiology Departement of the Maastricht University Hospital, Academical Medical Centre in Amsterdam and the Alrijne hospital in Leiderdorp, the Netherlands Publicationdate 2018-02-09 This is an overview of normal values of ultrasound examinations in neonates and children. Radiology 198:523-529, 1996 Bradley WG, Jr., Whittemore AR, Kortman KE, et al: Marked cerebrospinal fluid void: Indicator of successful shunt in patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus: a clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuropsychologic assessment of long-term outcome 11No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the author(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is/are associated. The most common definition uses a width of the atrium of the lateral ventricle of greater than 10 mm. The term “communicating” refers to the fact that the cerebrospinal fluid is able to circulate at the level of the ventricles, as the blockage is located in another place and the ventricles are open. Ventriculomegaly is a brain condition that mainly occurs in the fetus when the lateral ventricles become dilated. Postnatal MRI evaluation of the male neonate revealed stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and severe hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The coincidence development of the central nervous system and the renal system lead to some association between the CNS and kidneys anomalies. Introduction . Associated CNS abnormalities have been diagnosed in 84% of fetuses with hydrocephalus. Objective: To describe the clinical features and imaging findings in 24 patients with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) who developed hydrocephalus. Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus may be the result of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, or traumatic brain injury. In our series, some patients progressed favourably without specific treatment (patients 4 and 9), whereas other, more severe cases (patients 2 and 8) involved a high vital risk. Hydrocephalus in these cases increases morbidity and disability independent of the inciting event. Kinzler WL, Smulian JC, McLean DA, Guzman ER, Vintzileos AM. 2. Communicating vs Obstructive Hydrocephalus . Colpocephaly is a cephalic disorder involving the disproportionate enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles and is usually diagnosed early after birth due to seizures.It is a nonspecific finding and is associated with multiple neurological syndromes, including agenesis of the corpus callosum, Chiari malformation, lissencephaly, and microcephaly. Nearly all patients require surgical shunt placement emergently, and many require permanent ventricular catheters. Hydrocephalus can occur in association with other pathologies of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system, e.g. Childs Nerv Syst 28:357–362 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar This is an idiopathic form of communicating hydrocephalus, which features clinically as a triad of dementia, incontinence & gait disturbances. Communicating hydrocephalus can also be subdivided into normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and hydrocephalus ex-vacuo. Fig. Approximately 70 percent of dogs and cats with congenital hydrocephalus and shunt placement will show improvement of clinical signs. J Ultra-sound Med 2001; 20:257–262. Importance: Hydrocephalus is a treatable but potentially fatal complication that has not been previously described in congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). In those cases with severe, rapidly progressing hydrocephalus, there is invariably poor postnatal outcome. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Childs Nerv Syst 28:357–362 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 3 Radiology Section, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Severe ventriculomegaly involving the lateral and third ventricles was associated with a marked expansion or destruction of the sella turcica in 17 cases. Vascular risk factors (VRF) are associated with iNPH but obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) -a well-known independent VRF- is seldom mentioned. Radiology 217:877–885 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Andresen M, Juhler M (2012) Multiloculated hydrocephalus: a review of current problems in classification and treatment. Method: In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated brain CT or MRI scans of 390 patients with suspected iNPH. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics were correlated to the changes in ventricular size during the first 3 months posttrauma in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, 75 patients) to distinguish between atrophy and hydrocephalus as the two possible causes of posttraumatic ventriculomegaly. FIGURE 48-5 Colloid cyst of third ventricle, with severe obstructive hydrocephalus. For most types of hydrocephalus, surgery is the only treatment option. Its clinical course is highly variable, ranging from a relatively benign self-limited process to fulminant presentation with acute hydrocephalus, severe intracranial hypertension, and risk of death. Types of hydrocephalus, which features clinically as a triad of dementia, incontinence gait! 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