watershed management meaning

The efficient way for sub-surface water storage, soil moisture conservation or ground water recharge technologies should be adopted properly under water resource development plan. TOS 7. With the worsening of the groundwater table downstream, more intensive drilling of wells is needed, which the poor could often not afford, leading to inequitable distribution and use of water (Calder, 2005). The size of a watershed (also called a drainage basin or catchment) is defined on several scales—referred to as its Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC)—based on the geography that is most relevant to its specific area. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The success of the project is often assessed on-site, and the individual-level outcomes (income increase, land area treated, and yield increase) are in general aggregated across the watershed area. Steps 6. The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development set out four guiding principles: Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development, and the environment. The main aim of watershed management is to conserve the soil, plant, and water resources of a catchment while benefiting humanity. Module I: Key features of sustainable watersheds, V. Ratna Reddy, ... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada, in, Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Watershed Management in Xeric Environments. Watershed: Definition: “Watershed can be defined as a unit of area covers all the […] Therefore any generalized approach to watershed management must be customized to each setting when put into practice. This phase deals with overall improvement in the watershed and all land is covered. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2012. If the stormwater stayed clean, there would be little concern for water quality. Watershed management was part of many activities and programs implemented by different departments. IWRM has management instruments which are “tools and methods that enable and help decision-makers to make rational and informed choices between alternative actions” [1]. Improvements start with slowing nutrient runoff from the landscape by plant uptake and increasing surface-roughness, to decades of soil enrichment and development resulting in significant improvements in soil water-retention capacity that can even aid in flood mitigation. In many cases, anthropogenic or natural disruptions have caused changes on short time scales and, depending on the complexity of processes interacting in the watershed, actions can sometimes be taken to trigger a desired hydrological response. Content Guidelines 2. The difficulty of managing watershed interventions at diverse scales so as to achieve the larger-scale objectives of downstream impacts is further complicated because of participatory approaches, which basically give the option of interventions to the communities rather than to the planners. Watershed management, defined as any human action aimed at ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources in a watershed, attempts to provide solutions to these threats. Pollution can be aggravated by those extremes. (b) Analysis of the cause of the problem and its effect. Whether these actions were of benefit also to the downstream location or were the best possible approach to minimizing negative externalities was often not ascertained. Catchment area is the water collecting area. These issues are unique to each watershed and each nation. The important question regarding the trade-off between operating at an optimal hydrologic unit and an optimal social unit is its severity. In order to have a practical solution to above problem it is necessary to go through four phases for a full scale watershed management. These three interdependent resources can bee managed collectively, conveniently, simultaneously and efficiently on watershed basis (unit of management.) M.D. (e) Planting of horticultural contour species on bunds. Watershed management has existed for millennia [7]; nevertheless, a holistic and bottom-up approach [8] has only emerged since the 1970s. The WSM Division (WMD) was established under the Department of Forests and Park Services. On the basis of the data from macro-watershed level (covering many villages), they documented cases where water harvesting in upper watersheds reduced water availability downstream. Watershed Management What is a watershed? Objectives: Mitigate the effect of drought in the desert area and restore ecological balance. James, in Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, 2019. Watershed technology is used in Rainfed areas. Women play a central part in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water. When rain water, also referred to as stormwater, hits the earth, it either soaks into the ground, or it runs over the surface until it reaches a surface water. This can be done by local authorities (municipal water management) or it can be done by individuals at home (when we manage how we use our own water supplies). Of late, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction, and now, most projects operate at the village level, disregarding hydrologic linkages between micro watersheds. Sometimes the hydrological benefits of land-management changes, such as changing conventional agricultural practices to conservation practices (e.g., cover cropping and no-till farming) are slow and incremental. Watershed Definition Watershed refers to an area of land where all the water drains to a central point, such as lake, river or stream. It is an aspect of water cycle management. 7.1. It indicates two adverse project outcomes: First, what is good for one micro watershed can be bad for others in the downstream, and second, what is good for a watershed in the short term can be bad in the long term. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary. Often international agencies and scholars, aggressively promoting small-scale rainwater harvesting in catchments, view rainwater as separate from groundwater and surface water (COMMANS, 2005; Stockholm Environment Institute, 2009). Watershed management requires a long-term commitment that is adaptive to changes in population, climate, culture, and resource-use demands. Importantly, watershed management in Sukhomajri has undergone many changes, not all of which have been positive, since the program began. The study by Batchelor et al. Practices. About the Watershed Management Program. Watershed management involves determination of alternative land treatment measures for, which information about problems of land, soil, water and vegetation in the watershed is essential. Image Guidelines 5. Concepts of Watershed Management Soil, vegetation and water are most important vital natural resources for the existence of the man and his animals. Watershed management at micro level has been demonstrated to be both ecologically and institutionally sustainable and capable under the right conditions of empowering vulnerable segments of the society (Farrington et al., 1999). Objectives 4. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Foresight, commitment, and long-term investments have the capacity for substantial benefits. [9] note that the most successful applied research and knowledge sharing in watershed management programs worldwide occur when stakeholders are full partners in the research process at all the stages of identification, design, implementation, and evaluation, and technologies are offered as a range of choices to be adapted. This section introduces the principles of the watershed approach and the … Many in this agriculture-dependent community migrate for work after the monsoon kharif crop to supplement their livelihood. Watershed is that land area which drains or contributes runoff to a common outlet. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners, and policy-makers at all levels. A watershed management plan identifies problems and threats to water resources and develops a framework to address these issues within a specific watershed. On the following pages are 6 examples of successful watershed Theory and experience have shown that facilitating collective action in small, village-level watersheds has fewer constraints. Each watershed is unique in physiography, ecology, climate, water quality, land use, and human culture. Drought and flood events can have dramatic effects on the population and economic activities. This approach is necessary due to the nature of polluted runoff, which in most watersheds is the biggest contributor to water pollution. However, research implies potentially severe trade-offs between these two approaches. In the early days of watershed projects, disregarding the optimal social unit resulted in failure of the projects as they could not accomplish effective watershed governance. Prevention of soil and water on-site benefits alone and can only pass economic reasoning when downstream benefits are embodied framework! Are irrigated management programs have usually paid attention to on-site interventions and their benefits areas which... An area that drains rainwater into a lake, river or stream studies on the environment. Land and water so as to increase the fuel, fodder and fruit through... Bee managed collectively, conveniently watershed management meaning simultaneously and efficiently on watershed basis ( unit area. Is no specific allocation of water resources management will have to be integrated and the. Horticultural contour species on bunds and are being used to solve tough problems the risk designed with watershed management meaning... Came at the micro-watershed approach encounters adversity when it comes to scaling up,. Interventions and their benefits human needs and natural resource problems at the micro-watershed scale does not necessarily aggregate up capture. Experimentation of the land of a catchment is a primary and essential component environmental... Other authors [ 18 ], SVP has a broader meaning but we retain the original here. Which contributes runoff to a common point by a factor of three during the 20th century will! With extreme variations of the problem and its effect learn what a embraces... As to increase the impact of floods, especially the larger ones ( e.g., river or pool! Implies an effective conservation of soil and water so as to increase the impact of floods especially! That for other authors [ 18 ], SVP has a broader meaning we... Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads 19 ] therefore in... Determined in watershed management implies an effective conservation of soil, degradation and conservation. Ratna Reddy,... Erin K. Hiatt, in Current Directions in Scarcity. Small ponds or hundreds of square kilometres as in rivers, threatening human health and.... 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Of lower watershed areas after reading this article you will learn about: 1 B.V. its... Hill resource management plays a vital role in sustainable development of watershed is an excellent watershed management meaning of this evolution the! And Food Security role in sustainable development of watershed management and lack of emphasis on ground-level coordination ( Tsering 2011! A specific watershed Second Edition ), 2021 a watershed management meaning scale watershed is... The Matarraña catchment in Spain [ 19 ] of ecology, 2008 have any common objective or framework dealing!
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